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New research reveals why our solar system lacks a "mini Neptune"

Exoplanet-GJ-9827D-SCALED.JPG

This is the concept map of the artist’s outer planet GJ 9827D, which is the smallest exterior planet that detects water vapor in the atmosphere.This planet may be an example of the potential water -rich planets in other parts of the galaxy.The diameter of this planet is only twice the earth, running around the red dwarf GJ 9827.On the left is the two internal planets of the galaxy.The background star in the figure is seen when looking back at the sun with the naked eye without assistance.The sun is too dark to see.Source: NASA, ESA, Leah Hustak (STSCI), RALF CRAWFORD (STSCI)

Jonathan Brande, a doctoral candidate at the Kansas University EXOLAB Laboratory, published research results on the scientific magazine “Theastrophysical Journal Letters”, which has just obtained.The new atmospheric details of the planet.Although no exogenous planet can support the reproduction of smart creatures, better understanding of their behavior may help us understand why we do not have a little Neptune, and most of the solar system seems to have such a planet.

“In the past few years of the University of Kansas, my work focused on the atmosphere of the outer planet of the Department of Technology, which is called the Department of Technology, which is called transmitted spectrum.When the stars surrounded by the stars move, the light emitted by the stars will pass through the atmosphere of the planet and be absorbed by the various gas.Put the light through prisms)-we can observe the rainbow and measure the brightness of different composition colors. The brightness or darkness in the spectrum reveals the gas that absorbs light in the planet’s atmosphere. “

Utilizing this method, Brand published a paper on TOI-674 B about the “Warm Neptune” outer planet TOI-674 B several years ago. The observation results proposed in the paper show that water vapor in the atmosphere.These observations are part of Brand’s mentor and associate professor of physics and astronomy of the University of Queensland, Ian Crossfield, a wider plan of the atmosphere of the planets of Neptune.

Brand said: “We want to know the behavior of these planets, because the planets that are slightly larger than the earth and the small planets smaller than Neptune are the most common in the Milky Way.”

The recently published APJL paper summarizes the observation results of the plan and incorporates other observation data to solve why some planets seem turbid, while others are transparent.Brand and his co -authors noticed that areas that are prone to cloud or haze in the atmosphere of the outer planet.Researchers at the University of Queensland said that when this air -soluble was existed in the atmosphere, the haze would block the light through the atmosphere.

If there is a cloud layer above the surface of a planet and a transparent air from hundreds of kilometers above the cloud layer, then the starlight can easily pass through the transparent air and be absorbed by the specific gas of the atmosphere.However, if the location of the cloud is very high, Yun Tong is often opaque in the entire electromagnetic spectrum.Although clouds have spectral characteristics, for the work of astronomers, they focus on a relatively narrow range with Hubble, and they will also produce most of the flat spectral spectra.When these air -solubles appear at the height of the atmosphere, the light has no clear filtering path.

Brand said: “Using Hubble, our most sensitive single gases are water vapor. If we observe water vapor in the planet’s atmosphere, this is good to indicate that it is not high enough to block the cloud layer that is sufficient to block its absorption. Conversely,If you do n’t observe water vapor, you only see a flat spectrum, although you know that the planet should have an extended atmosphere, which indicates that there may be cloud layers or haze at a higher level. “

Brand led a team of international astronomers to complete this paper, including Krossfield of Kunming University of Science and Technology and a team of co-leaders of Laura Creedberg, a team of Laura Creedberg, and a team of Laura Creedberg.Researchers at the University of Texas, led by Caroline Moli.

The analysis method of Brand and his co -author is different from the previous analysis methods. They focus on determining the physical parameters of the atmosphere of Little Sea King.In contrast, previous analysis usually fit a single model spectrum with observation data.

Under normal circumstances, researchers use a atmospheric model that calculates the water content in advance, to zoom and move it to match it with the planet observed in the sample.This method can show whether the spectrum is clear or turbid, but it cannot provide information about the water vapor content or the location of the cloud layer in the atmosphere.Instead, Brand uses a technology called “atmospheric retrieval”.

He said: “This involves atmospheric modeling of various planet parameters such as the number of water vapor and the location of the cloud layer, and finds the best fitting configuration through hundreds of and thousands of simulation iterations.Better combined model spectrum, and calculate the turbidity or clarity of the planet accordingly. Then, we compare the clarity of the measured with Caroline Morley.Show our results in line with expectations of planet -like. When studying clouds and haze behaviors, our model shows that clouds are more suitable than haze. The sedimentary efficiency parameters reflect the tightness of the cloud.Relatively low, which produces fluffy clouds. These clouds are composed of particles such as water droplets. Due to the low trend of settlement, they have been floating in the atmosphere. “

The results of Brand gave people a deeper understanding of the behavior of these planetary atmospheres. When he introduced these research results at the recent meeting of the American Astronomical Society, it caused “great interest”.

In addition, Brand is part of the international observation plan led by Crossfield. The plan has just announced that water vapor is found on GJ 9827DEssence

The observation results of the Hubble Space Telescope show that this planet may be just an example of the aquatic planet in the galaxy.The results were announced by the research team led by Pierre-Alex Roy at the Trottei Institute of Outsourcing at the University of Montreal.

Brand said: “We are looking for water vapor in the atmosphere of the type of planet below Neptune. Pierre-Alexis’s thesis is the latest achievement of this main work because we spend about 10 or 11 orbits or ordered.The planet only detected water vapor. Pierre-Alex’s spectrum has entered our paper as one of our trend data points.Including it, we have made our results more powerful. In the process of writing two papers, we have always maintained close communication with them to ensure that we have used the correct latest results and accurately reflect their research results. “

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